California, United States of America
The following excerpt is from People v. Verkade, D064499 (Cal. App. 2015):
Only relevant evidence is admissible (Evid. Code, 350), "and all relevant evidence is admissible unless excluded under the federal or California Constitution or by statute. (Evid. Code, 351; see also Cal. Const., art. I, 28, subd. (d).)" (People v. Heard (2003) 31 Cal.4th 946, 973 (Heard).) Relevant evidence is that which has "any tendency in reason to prove or disprove any disputed fact that is of consequence to the determination of the action." (Evid. Code, 210.) Relevance is established when the evidence tends " ' " 'logically, naturally, and by reasonable inference' " ' " to establish a material fact. (Heard, at p. 973.)
A trial court's admission of evidence is reviewed for an abuse of discretion. (People v. Brown (2003) 31 Cal.4th 518, 547.) Under this standard, the trial court's ruling will not be disturbed in the absence of a showing that the court exercised its
discretion "in an arbitrary, capricious, or patently absurd manner that resulted in a manifest miscarriage of justice." (People v. Rodriguez (1999) 20 Cal.4th 1, 9-10.)
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