Is a visa officer's manager entitled to disagree with an officer's recommendation if the visa officer has not conducted an oral interview?

Canada (Federal), Canada

The following excerpt is from Ali v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), 1998 CanLII 7680 (FC):

The respondent also submits that since the visa officer has no obligation to hold an oral hearing, he is entitled to appoint an investigator to meet the parties and hear and record their evidence. Furthermore, the respondent cites the decision in Alvarez v. Canada (Solicitor General), [1994] F.C.J. No. 1870 (F.C.T.D.) where Wetston J. held that an immigration officer's manager was entitled to disagree with the officer's recommendation even though the manager had not conducted the interview.

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