What is the test for applying for permanent resident status from within Canada?

Canada (Federal), Canada

The following excerpt is from White v. Canada (Citizenship and Immigration), 2008 FC 896 (CanLII):

The benefit of applying for permanent resident status from within Canada is an extraordinary remedy and it follows that such an application focuses on the individual circumstances at play. The Act regulates the admission of non-citizens into Canada. Admission into Canada is a privilege, not a right; see Chiarelli v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), 1992 CanLII 87 (SCC), [1992] 1 S.C.R. 711 at 733.

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