What is the test for determining whether the Accident caused lower back pain?

British Columbia, Canada


The following excerpt is from Zawadzki v. Calimoso, 2011 BCSC 45 (CanLII):

The issue is whether the Accident caused his lower back pain. Both parties agreed on the legal principles at issue. In Athey v. Leonati, 1996 CanLII 183 (SCC), [1996] 3 S.C.R. 458, Mr. Justice Major, for the court, said:

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